Lexicology Essay



1 ) Principles of general linguistics

2 . The structure of English words

3. Derivation as a major word-building style

4. Compounding. Classification of compounding

5. Shortening and abbreviation

6. Conversion. Types of conversion

six. Minor types (РґРѕРї. СЃРїРѕСЃРѕР±С‹) of word-building

8. The situation of meaning

9. Types of meaning

10. Transform of meaning

11. Copy of that means (metaphor, metonymy)

12. Polysemy or plurality of that means

13. Homonyms, classification of homonyms

18. Synonyms, types of word and phrase replacements

15. Antonyms

16. Phraseology

17. Borrowings in English

1 . Concepts of general linguistics

Lexicology is of Greek source (" Lexis” – term, " logos” – science). It research words and expressions according to their composition, meaning and origin. Quite simply the framework of terms is examined in morphology, the meaning in semantics and origin in etymology. Lexicology

Lexis Logos Structure (Morphology) Meaning (Semantics) Origin (Etymology)

Lexicology is dependent on the general principles of linguistics. The word may be the basic device of a dialect.

1) Vocabulary is a sociable phenomena

2) Language is definitely the unity of forms and content

You will discover two approaches:

1 . Synchronic – research the language at the certain period of development. installment payments on your Diachronic – studies all of the changes in the terminology through period.

2 . The structure of English words

From the point of view in the structure most words could be divided into: 2. simple

5. derived

* compound

Straightforward words contain one root

Derived words consist of morphemes (smallest meaningful units).

Efficient Derivational

Gr. being Suffixes Prefixes (stand following (stand ahead of the root) the root) justice unlucky

The stem splits a part of the phrase which continues to be unchanged throughout its paradigm. Paradigm is a system of grammatical forms, features of the word. The level of resistance of the stem (основа) and the affix lies at the foundation morphological examination, which is called the analysis in to Immediate Constituents (ICs). In respect to this examination a produced word is usually divided into this sort of a way. Enlightenment – просвещение

It's a formal procedure. Later on this procedure utilized in Semantics. to enlarge – for making larger

to make certain – to ensure

to encircle – to set up a group

Compound terms consist of several items.

Seamen – semi-affix (полу-афекс)

E. g. waterproof, soundproof, shockproof


E. g. wellbeing, well-mannered

Beside morphemes proper you will discover allomorphs. They may be positional variants of the same morpheme. E. g. action, supply, liberation

several. Derivation being a major word-building pattern

Derivation – is creating words and phrases by means of adding suffixes or prefixes towards the root morpheme. One suffixes were independent words " dom” supposed condition (freedom), " hood” meant a state (childhood), " ship” intended shape (friendship). But in the expense of time they had lost their independence and became parts of phrases. Suffixes could be characterized by the 4 criteria's:

* simply by grammatical that means (noun-forming, verb-forming, adjective-forming, adverb-forming); * simply by origin ( Germanic, Romanic and Greek);

* by degree of output (productive, nonproductive ); * by lexical meaning.

Noun-forming paragraphs:

* the dual with the action

2. the action itself

5. the state

5. diminutive (уменьшит. )

* derogatory

6. Conversion. Types of conversion

Conversion – is the formation of phrases into one other part of presentation by means of changing the grammatical paradigm from the original expression. The term " conversion” is not quite précised, because the previous word (a word from where a new word...